What is Application Software? 8 main types


Text editors

Word processor Is a program used specifically for entering and editing text data. It is text editors that are the most frequently used applications on a personal computer. The simplicity and convenience of text editing on a computer led to the decline of the “era of typewriters”.

MS Windows Notepad

The possibilities of text editors vary - from small programs (for example, Notepad from MS Windows) designed for preparing small documents with a simple structure, to word processors for typing, formatting and full preparation for typographic publication of books and magazines (for example, Corel WordPerfect, Lotus Word Pro , Microsoft Word).

Microsoft Word

Publishing systems

Publishing systems are designed for computer layout. Full-featured publishing systems - Adobe PageMaker, Corel Ventura, Microsoft Publisher and TECH are designed to create layouts for any publication - from flyers to multi-page books and magazines.


Graphics editor

Graphics editor Is a program designed to automate the processes of building graphic images on the display screen. It provides the ability to draw lines, curves, paint areas of the screen, label with different fonts, and more.

There are two main ways of encoding graphic information:

  1. Vector;
  2. Raster.

In vector graphics, any drawing is represented as a combination of simple geometric shapes (or, as they are called, primitives) - points, line segments and curves, circles, rectangles, etc. Vector graphics have many advantages. It is small in size. This is due to the fact that not the image itself is saved, but only some mathematical equations, using which the program recreates the image every time.

Vector graphics objects are easily transformed and modified without any impact on image quality. Scaling and rotation are actually reduced to elementary transformations over vectors. The main disadvantage of vector graphics is the inability to create photorealistic images.

Vector graphics are ideal for drawings that are easy to represent as a combination of simple shapes, such as technical drawings.

Raster graphics, characterized by the fact that the entire image is divided vertically and horizontally into fairly small rectangles - the so-called pixels (from English pixel - picture element). The smaller the rectangles into which the image is divided, the higher the resolution, i.e. the finer details can be saved in the graphic file.

Typically, bitmaps take up more disk space than vector images because a bitmap stores information about the color of each pixel in that image. When scaling a raster image, its quality noticeably deteriorates due to an increase in the geometric dimensions of each pixel of the image.

With the help of raster graphics, you can reflect and convey the entire gamut of shades and halftones inherent in the real image. A bitmap is closer to a photograph.

Most often, raster images are obtained by scanning photographs and other images or using a digital camera. Raster images can be obtained directly in graphic editors.

Adobe Photoshop

The most popular are graphic editors: for raster graphics - Adobe Photoshop, and for vector graphics - CorelDRAW.


Spreadsheets

Spreadsheets Are programs that allow you to create tables with automatic recalculation. Spreadsheets have another name - table processors.

Initial data and formulas for calculating the resulting values ​​are entered into spreadsheets. Any change to the original data causes an automatic change in the results.

Spreadsheets are used to perform mathematical, financial, statistical, and engineering calculations. For example, using spreadsheets, you can create any financial document, a report for the accounting department, draw up a budget, payroll, rent calculation, etc.

Microsoft Excel

Many software development firms for personal computers have created their own versions of spreadsheet processors. The most popular of them are: Lotus 1-2-3 firms Lotus Development and MS Excel by Microsoft.


Database

Database Is a collection of data organized according to certain rules, stored in the long-term memory of a computer and allowing certain methods of searching and selecting information. The databases can store timetables for trains, buses and planes, information about the availability of goods in a store, information about students and university professors, information about books in the library, etc.

DBMS (Database Management System) - a set of programs and language tools for creating, maintaining and using databases.

There is a great variety of products in this segment of software, differing in capabilities and scope, from relatively simple - Access, dBase, FoxPro, Paradox, to very powerful - IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle.


Accounting programs

Accounting programs are designed to facilitate the work of accountants, especially in large enterprises. As a rule, they all require customization and adaptation not only to the requirements of national legislation, but also to the accounting features at each specific enterprise, that is, they require refinement, customization and support from a qualified programmer.

Examples of accounting programs include 1C: Accounting, Galaxy ERP.


Presentation software

Presentation software sits halfway between text editors and vector graphics editors. With the presentation editor, you can create various types of presentations: on the screen, on slides (color and black and white), on paper, and on the Internet.

A presentation is a series of independent pages, that is, if the text and illustrations do not fit entirely on the page, then the excess is not transferred to a new page, but is lost. The distribution of all objects on the pages and their placement within the pages is controlled by the user. At the same time, he usually has at his disposal an extensive set of ready-made objects (geometric shapes, icons, text boxes, etc.).

Microsoft PowerPoint

Examples of presentations include Microsoft PowerPoint and Lotus Freelance.


Web browsers

Yandeks.Brauzer

Web browsers provide access to one of the Internet services - the Word Wide Web. The most widespread are Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Google Chrome, Safari, Yandex Browser, etc.

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